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Full text of "Chemical and physical quality of water resources in Connecticut, 1955-1958 : progress report"

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Connecticut 

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http://archive.org/details/cheinicalphysicalOOpaus 



CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF 
WATER RESOURCES IN CONNECTICUT 



1955 - 1958 




(Progress Report) 






GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS 

RECEIVED 




SEP 20 1979 


By 


UfWERftiTY USftARY 
UfUVfStMTY OF OONNtOTICUT 


F. H. Pauszek 







Published by the Connecticut Water Resources Commission in cooperation 
with Geological Survey, United States Department of Interior 



Connecticut "Water Resources Bulletin No, 1 



^ L i_ 



c 

V 



CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF WATER RESOURCES 

IN CONNECTICUT 

1955 - 1958 
(Progress Report) 



By 
F. H. Pauszek 



Published by the Connecticut Water 
Resources Commission in cooperation 
with the Geological Survey, United 
States Department of Interior 



CONNECTICUT WATER RESOURCES BULLETIN NO. 1 



university of 

Connecticut 
libraries 




PREFACE 



A program to appraise the chemical and physical quality 
of surface and ground waters in Connecticut was started in 1955 
by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State 
Water Resources Commission. The objective of the program 
is to provide information for those concerned with the use of 
water insofar as it is affected by solutes, temperature and 
suspended sediment. This is the first in a series of planned 
reports on the chemical and physical quality of water resources 
in Connecticut. It contains results of the investigation through 
1958. 



The program could not have been started and continued 
without the interest and support of William S. Wise, Director, 
Connecticut Water Resources Commission. Others were 
helpful in furnishing information needed for the preparation 
of this report. Records of discharge were furnished by 
B. L. Bigwood, District Engineer, Surface Water Branch, 
Hartford, Connecticut; geologic information and temperature 
data were furnished by R. V. Cushman, Geologist-in-Charge, 
Ground Water Branch, Middletown, Connecticut; chemical 
analyses were made by personnel of the Quality of Water 
Branch, Albany, New York. The program is under the general 
direction of S. K. Love, Chief, and the immediate supervision 
of F. H. Pauszek, District Chemist, Quality of Water Branch 
in Washington, D. C. and Albany, New York respectively. 
All of the branches mentioned are organizational units of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. 



111 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface , iii 

Abstract 1 

Introduction 4 

Water quality and environment 4 

Environmental factors 4 

Precipitation 5 

Geology 5 

Chemical quality 10 

Housatonic River basin 10 

Surface water 10 

Ground water 24 

Summary 27 

Connecticut River basin 28 

Surface water 28 

Ground water 36 

Summary 45 

Quinnipiac River basin 46 

Surface water 46 

Summary 50 

Thames River basin 50 

Surface water „ 50 

Summary 58 

Temperature 58 

Surface water 58 

Ground water 65 

Fluvial sediment in the Scantic River at Broad Brook 65 

Water , quality and utility 71 

References 76 

Appendix 77 

Glossary 78 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
(Plates are in pocket) 

Plate 1. Map of Connecticut showing the following river basins: 
A. Housatonic River, B. Connecticut River 
C. Thames River and D. Quinnipiac River 
2. Map showing approximate locations of sampled wells 
in the Housatonic and Connecticut River basins 



IV 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Figure 1. Average monthly runoff, Quinebaug River at 

Jewett City 1918-50 7 

2. Map showing areas of limestone, sandstone, 
and crystalline rock in Connecticut (after 

H. E. Gregory) 8 

3. Average composition, Housatonic River at 

Falls Village 1955-56 14 

4. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Housatonic River at Falls Village, 1955-56 15 

5. Chemical composition of streams in the 
Housatonic River basin at high and low 
discharges 16 

6. Hardness of water from streams in the 
Housatonic River basin during low and high 
stream discharge 17 

7. Daily iron concentrations, Housatonic River at 
Falls Village, 1955-56 19 

8. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Naugatuck River near Thomaston, 1957-58 22 

9. Daily iron concentrations of the Naugatuck 

River near Thomaston, 1957-58 23 

10. Daily iron concentrations of the Connecticut 
River at Thompsonville, 1955-56 and Farmington 
River at Rainbow, 1957-58. . . . 33 

11. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Connecticut River at Thompsonville, 1955-56. . . .34 

12. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Farmington River at Rainbow, 1957-58 35 

13. Relationship between dissolved solids and 
discharge, Connecticut River at Thompsonville, 
1955-56. 37 

14. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Quinnipiac River at Wallingford, 1956-57 49 

15. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Quinebaug River at Putnam, 1957-58 55 

16. Specific conductance and daily mean discharge, 
Quinebaug River at Jewett City, 1955-56 56 

17. Daily iron concentrations, Quinebaug River at 
Putnam, 1957-58 59 

18. Daily iron concentrations, Shetucket River near 
Willimantic and Willimantic River near South 
Coventry, 1956-57 60 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Figure 19. Maximum and minimum water temperatures of 

selected rivers in Connecticut 63 

20. Monthly mean water temperatures, Scantic 

River at Broad Brook, 1953-58 64 

21. Relation of suspended sediment load to 
discharge, Scantic River at Broad Brook, 
1954-58 69 

22. Monthly mean sediment load (tons) Scantic 

River at Broad Brook, 1952-58 70 

TABLES 

Table 1. Average monthly and annual rainfall in inches 

at selected stations in Connecticut 6 

2. Periodic analyses of streams in Connecticut, 
Housatonic River basin 11 

3. Summary of chemical data, Housatonic River at 
Falls Village, October 1955-September 1956. ... 12 

4. Summary of chemical data, Naugatuck River 

near Thomaston, October 1957-September 1958. .21 

5. Chemical analyses of water from wells in the 
Housatonic River basin 25 

6. Data of wells in the Housatonic River basin 26 

7. Summary of chemical data, Connecticut River at 
Thompsonville, October 1955-September 1956. ..30 

8. Summary of chemical data, Farmington River at 
Rainbow, October 1957-September 1958 31 

9- Periodic analyses of streams in Connecticut, 

Connecticut River basin 32 

10. Chemical analyses of water from wells in 
Connecticut River basin 39 

11. Data of wells in the Connecticut River basin 43 

12. Range of dissolved solids, hardness and average 
discharge of major rivers in central Connecticut47 

13. Summary of chemical data, Quinnipiac River at 
Wallingford, October 1956-September 1957 48 

14. Periodic analyses of streams in Connecticut, 
Thames River basin 51 

15. Summary of chemical data of surface waters in 
the Thames River basin 53 



VI 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Table 16. Percent of time water temperature ( r ) equalled 

or exceeded temperature shown 62 

17. Temperature of ground water in observation 
wells in Connecticut based on monthly readings. . 66 

18. Percent of time, daily sediment load (tons per 
day) equalled or exceeded those tabulated, 
Scantic River at Broad Brook 68 

19- Particle- size analyses of suspended sediment, 

Scantic River at Broad Brook, 1954-1958 72 

20. Suggested water-quality tolerances 74 



Vll 



CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF WATER RESOURCES 

IN CONNECTICUT 

1955 - 1958 

(Progress Report) 

by 

F. H. Pauszek 

ABSTRACT 



The chemical and physical quality of water resources 
in Connecticut ranges from good to poor reflecting the influence 
of diverse geology, streamflow, and, in some areas, pollution. 

In the upper Housatonic River basin in the western part 
of the State, streams draining the limestone areas have a 
chemical composition consisting principally of calcium and 
bicarbonate, contain concentrations of dissolved solids as high 
as Z16 ppm (parts per million), and are moderately hard. In 
the lower part of the basin, streams draining crystalline rock 
are low in dissolved solids, and are soft. Stream pollution 
is present in some sections of the basin, especially in the 
Naugatuck River, and unusual changes in the chemical quality 
of the water are attributed to it. 

Ground waters in the upper basin also show wide 
differences in the chemical quality depending on whether the 
water-bearing formation is crystalline rock or dolomitic 
limestone. In the Naugatuck River valley in and near 
Waterbury the chemical quality of water from some shallow 
sand and gravel aquifers is lowered by infiltration of water 
of poorer quality from the river. Other aquifers in the same 
area appear to be unaffected and contain water of better quality. 



The Connecticut River and its tributaries drain an 
area of sandstone, shale and crystalline rock overlain by un- 
consolidated deposits of sand, gravel and till. Mineral matter 
from these deposits is moderately soluble. This is reflected 
in the dissolved- solids content of the major streams - 40 to 
90 ppm; about twice as high in some smaller streams. 
Although the increase in mineral content due to inflow of 
industrial wastes is undetermined, the mineral content of the 
major rivers does not appear excessive. Higher streamflow 
in the major rivers has a moderating influence on the chemical 
quality. 

Ground water is obtained from bedrock and unconsoli- 
dated deposits, the latter, with the exception of till, is more 
productive. Chemical quality of water from sand and gravel 
ranges widely. The concentrations of dissolved solids in water 
from these deposits are about 300 ppm or less and the waters 
are soft. Generally the chemical quality of water from 
sandstone is similar to that obtained from sand and gravel 
deposits. 

The Quinnipiac River at Wallingford contained dissolved 
solids ranging from 103 to 174 ppm. The concentrations were 
usually higher than those in other major rivers in the central 
part of the state. The chemical quality of ground water has not 
been determined. 

Generally, the chemical quality of surface waters in the 
Thames River basin was as good or better than that of surface 
waters in other basins throughout the state. Some surface 
waters in the basin contained concentrations of dissolved solids 
as low as 32 ppm and had a hardness as low as 10 ppm. Most 
streams contain domestic and industrial wastes in varying 
quantities but the direct contribution to the mineral content of 
the water is not known. At present no data have been obtained 
on the chemical quality of ground water in the basin. 

Temperatures of surface waters in Connecticut follow a 
seasonal pattern. They decrease erratically late in October, 
hover near freezing during the winter months, and gradually 
rise in April. Ninety five percent of the time water temper- 
atures in major streams equalled or were less than 80 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 



A sediment station has been operated on the Scantic 
River at Broad Brook since 1952. About 50 percent of the time, 
the sediment discharge rate is less than 10 tons per day. With 
rising stage, sediment discharge increases rapidly for short 
periods. During the hurricane floods of 1955, the suspended 
sediment load for August 1955 was 12, 115 tons of which 70 
percent (10,890 tons) passed the Broad Brook station during 
a two-day period. 

The chemical quality of most surface and ground waters 
in the state is satisfactory for multiple uses but not necessarily 
satisfactory for all uses. Iron is present in excessive concen- 
trations in some surface and ground waters and could be a 
problem. Fortunately, with suitable treatment the chemical 
quality of most waters can be improved if necessary. 



INTRODUCTION 



Water Quality and Environment 



Quality of water is the end product of the interaction 
of water and its environment. More specifically, "quality of 
water" as used in this report refers to the quantity and kind 
of material in solution and suspension (excluding living 
organisms), the resulting chemical and physical effects, and 
temperature. Water is the aggressive agent and the environ- 
ment is the aggregate of all external conditions and influences. 
Initially, atmospheric water is similar in quality to that of 
distilled water. However, this condition is soon altered by 
substances in the atmosphere. Gases and minute quantities 
of minerals are being dissolved and even solid particles may 
be in suspension. Reaching the earth and flowing over the 
land surface or underground, water dissolves mineral matter 
and industrial and domestic "wastes with which it comes into 
contact. In addition to its solvent action, surface water is 
capable of eroding and transporting soil particles. Being an 
excellent heat- exchange medium, the temperature of water 
changes with its environment. High streamflow usually will 
reduce the concentrations of solutes in surface waters by 
dilution. Inflow of ground water adds to the mineral content 
especially during periods of low streamflow. Obviously the 
environment plays an important role in fashioning the quality 
of water. 



Environmental Factors 



What are some of the environmental factors in 
Connecticut that affect the chemical quality of water? Two 
well known major factors are precipitation and geology. In 
these two fields extensive studies have been made and long 
periods of record are available. 



Connecticut, as do most states in the Northeast, 
Pre- receives an ample supply of precipitation 

cipi- throughout the year. The total precipitation 

ta- usually ranges from 45 to 50 inches but as much 

tion as 75 inches has also been recorded. Areally, 

variations in precipitation throughout the State 
are about the same. The extremes may range from a low of 
30 to 35 inches to a high of 60 to 65 inches. The average and 
monthly precipitation records compiled by the U. S. Weather 
Bureau for periods as long as 82 years are shown in table 1. 

Although the amount of precipitation is rather uniformly 
distributed throughout the year, the amount of surface-water 
runoff varies seasonally. During the winter months, snow may 
remain on the ground and may contribute substantially to the 
spring runoff as it melts. During the summer months, precip- 
itation is also generally ample. However, this period represents 
the growing season. Air and water temperatures are higher. 
Water losses occur through evaporation, transpiration and 
retention by vegetation. As a result, runoff is reduced- -for 
example, Quinebaug River at Jewett City (fig. 1). During the 
period June through October runoff is only about 28 percent 
of the total rainfall (using rainfall data obtained at Storrs). 

These variations in streamflow lead to fluctuations in 
the quality of surface waters as will be shown later. During 
high streamflow, dilution reduces the concentration (weight 
per unit volume) of dissolved solids; cooler water will lower 
the water temperature; and the rate of sediment discharge 
(tons per day) may rise. During low flow, however, the 
concentrations of solutes are greater because dilution is less 
effective, and inflow of more mineralized water from ground 
storage adds to the solute content. Water temperatures are 
affected more by air temperatures; especially shallow streams. 
As stream velocities decrease heavier suspended sediment 
particles deposit and sediment discharges are reduced. 

Bedrock in Connecticut consists chiefly of three 
Geology distinct rock groups: Pre-Triassic crystalline 

rocks in the eastern and western parts of the 
State, Triassic sedimentary rocks in the central part, and a 
narrow belt of Paleozoic limestone (marble), also in the 
western part of the State (fig. 2). 



Table 1. -AVERAGE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL RAINFALL, IN 
INCHES, AT SELECTED STATIONS IN CONNECTICUT* 



Station and Section of State 





Norfolk 


Hartfoi 


•d 


Storrs 


New Haven 


Month 


(Northwestern) 


(Centr; 


al) 


(Eastern) 


(Coastal) 


January 


3. 


87 


3. 15 




3. 


67 


3. 


89 


February- 


3. 


51 


2, 57 




3. 


37 


3. 


30 


March 


4. 


16 


3. 81 




4. 


12 


4. 


12 


April 


4. 


21 


3. 56 




3. 


56 


3. 


89 


May- 


4. 


33 


3. 66 




3. 


50 


3. 


87 


June 


4. 


85 


3. 62 




3. 


17 


3. 


81 


July 


4. 


16 


3. 56 




4. 


22 


3. 


66 


August 


4. 


20 


3. 54 




4. 


16 


4. 


11 


September 


4. 


16 


3. 44 




4. 


07 


3. 


46 


October 


3. 


40 


2. 80 




3. 


58 


3. 


00 


November 


4. 


59 


3.48 




3. 


47 


3. 


94 


December 


4. 


04 


3. 29 




3. 


65 


3. 


94 



Annual 



49.48 



40. 48 



44. 54 



44. 99 



(U. S. Weather Bureau) 



*Years of Rainfall Records 

Norfolk. 40 

Hartford 50 

Storrs 64 

New Haven. ... 82 



CD 

o 

c 



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c 

rr 




Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

Figure I r Average monthly runoff, Quinebaug River at 
Jewett City, 1918-1950 




SANDSTONE 



Em 

CRYSTALLINE 



10 15 20 25 MILES 



Figure2r Map showing areas of limestone, sandstone^nd crystalline 
rock in Connecticut (after H.E.Gregory). 



8 



Practically all the crystalline rocks are transformed 
considerably from their original state as igneous or sedimen- 
tary rocks. The mineral components are mica, feldspar, 
quartz and amphibole. Of these feldspar and quartz are the 
principal components. The chemical composition of feldspar 
is that of a series of complex aluminum silicates combined 
with either potassium, sodium or calcium. Quartz consists 
of silica and oxygen. 

The consolidated rocks of the Connecticut valley are 
the Triassic sediments composed chiefly of sandstone, shale, 
and basaltic lava or trap rock that are interbedded with the 
sediments. They underlie the greater part of the valley. 
The chemical composition of the sediments varies with the 
composition of the cementing agent that holds the grains 
together. Sandstones in the lower Connecticut valley have 
a reddish brown color which indicates cementation by iron 
oxide. However, silica, calcite, dolomite and in some 
instances halite may also be present. Shale, a fine-grained 
sedimentary rock, is composed primarily of clay minerals 
and mica; gypsum often is associated with shale. 

Trap rock, usually dark colored, crops out in small 
areas in the lower and also along the western part of the 
upper Connecticut valley. Its mineral composition is not 
definitely known. Basically its chemical composition 
consists of silicates in various combinations with calcium, 
magnesium, aluminum, iron and other elements. 

Very little of the limestone in the northwestern part 
of the state is pure limestone. The Paleozoic limestone is 
actually a dolomitic limestone. Its chemical composition is 
chiefly calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate in 
varying proportions. 

The unconsolidated deposits are mostly of glacial 
origin and include sand and gravel, silt and clay, and till 
composed of clay, sand, gravel and boulders. They are 
found practically everywhere in the State overlying the bed- 
rock but attain greatest prominence in the valleys of the 
larger streams and the coastal lowlands. The mineral 
composition of the unconsolidated material is equally varied 
and consists principally of silicate compounds of calcium, 
magnesium, iron, manganese, sodium and other elements. 



These are the major sources of minerals in 
Connecticut. What is their contribution to the chemical 
quality of surface and ground waters in the state? What is 
the controlling influence? How does the chemical quality 
vary with time and place? These are some of the questions 
that will be considered in the following sections. 



CHEMICAL QUALITY 



HOUSATONIC RIVER BASIN 



Surface Waters 

During the period 1955-58 the chemical quality of 
surface "waters in the Housatonic River basin ranged from 
good to fair. The range of dissolved solids was 32 to 216 ppm 
and of hardness was 13 to 180 ppm (tables 2 &; 3). This broad 
range in quality reflected the diverse geology, streamflow 
conditions and, in some areas, industrial pollution. Although 
the chemical quality of all streams in the basin has not been 
studied, it is believed that the ranges given above include 
most major streams and many of the smaller streams. 

To facilitate discussion, the basin has been sub- 
divided into the upper and lower basins. The upper basin 
includes the main stem from the Massachusetts - Connecticut 
state line and the major tributaries, Blackberry, Tenmile 
and Still Rivers. The lower basin includes the main stem 
downstream from the confluence of Still and the Housatonic 
Rivers, and the major tributaries Shepaug, Pomperaug and 
Naugatuck Rivers (plate 1). 

In the upper basin, broad to narrow areas of limestone 
are surrounded by crystalline rock (fig. 2). Although the 
mineral composition of the unconsolidated deposits has not been 
determined, it is assumed that the deposits are an admixture 
of weathered material from the bedrock, sand, gravel, and 
till. 



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11 



Table 3. --SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL DATA 
HOUSATONIC RIVER AT FALLS VILLAGE 

October 1955 - September 1956 



a Constituent 










Minimum 


bAverage 


Maximum 


Silica 
(SiQ,) 










2. 6 


5. 5 


7. 6 


Iron 
(Fe) 










. 06 


. 22 


. 53 


Calcium 
(Ca) 










14 


26 


35 


Magnesium 
(Mg) 










6.4 


10 


15 


Sodium 
(Na) 










2. 4 


5. 9 


12 


Potassium 
(K) 










• 9 


1. 6 


2. 4 


Bicarbonate 
(HCO.) 










63 


116 


165 


Sulfate 
(SO ) 










10 


16 


22 


Chloride 
(CI) 










3. 


6. 6 


11 


Fluoride 
(F) 










. u 


. 


. 2 


Nitrate 
(NO J 










. 6 


2. 1 


3. 2 


Dissolved 
solids 










86 


137 


184 


c Total Hardness 
as CaC0 








61 


108 


149 


Specific conductance 
(micrombos at 25 C ) 






135 


238 


328 


F H 










7. 




7. 7 


Color 










3 


7 


12 


Oxygen 

Consumed, unfiltered 


sam 


pies 


2. 6 


5. 5 


10 


Oxygen 
Consumed, filt 


ered sampl 


es 


2. C 


3. 5 


5. 7 



a. In parts per million except pH, color and specific conductance. 

b. Time-weighted. 

c. Includes hardness of all polyvalent cations reported. 



12 



The presence of carbonate rock is reflected in the 
chemical composition of the water of the main stem and its 
tributaries. In the Housatonic River at Falls Village, for 
example, 82 percent of the dissolved constituents consisted 
of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (fig. 3). Black- 
berry and Tenmile Rivers had a similar composition based 
on several analyses of water samples collected during high 
and low flows. The average content of calcium, magnesium, 
and bicarbonate was 81 to 83 percent respectively. Still 
River, however, reflected the changing downstream trend 
due to a decrease in drainage from limestone and an increase 
in drainage from crystalline rock; its average content of 
calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate was 63 percent. 

The chemical composition in all streams remained the 
same irrespective of streamflow but the concentrations of 
solutes fluctuated considerably. Here streamflow was a 
controlling factor (fig. 4 h 5). During high flow, dilution was 
effective in reducing concentrations of dissolved solids. This 
is a natural process. During period of heavy precipitation 
and accelerated surface runoff, time of contact with soils and 
rocks is shorter; less material is dissolved; and therefore 
concentrations of the solutes are less. The reverse is true 
during low flow when a large portion of streamflow consists 
of ground water inflow. Because ground "water is usually more 
mineralized than surface water, concentrations of dissolved 
solids are increased. 

Because the chemical composition is principally calcium, 
magnesium and bicarbonate, hardness is a prominent chemical 
characteristic of surface waters in the basin. It was higher in 
water in streams draining limestone areas - Tenmile River near 
Gaylordsville and Housatonic River at Falls Village. Downstream, 
as drainage from crystalline rock increased, hardness of the main 
stem and tributaries decreased (fig. 6). Here, too, streamflow 
had a modifying influence on the concentrations of calcium and 
magnesium; the constituents, which mainly cause hardness of 
water. Generally, the range of hardness was from low to 
moderate. In the basin, however, during a low flow period, 
hardness as high as 180 ppm was determined in a water sample 
from Tenmile River near Gaylordsville. 



13 




Mineral constituents 

Average composition, Housatonic River at Fal Is Village, 1955-56 

14 



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15 



Calcium B 
Magnesium 



Sodium S 
Potassium 



Bicarbonate 



Sulfate, Chloride 
Fluoride 8 Nitrate 



Blackberry River at Cannon, Connecticut 



348 cfs 
29 cfs 



Housatonic River at Falls Village, Connecticut 



^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^78° cf 



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820 cfs 
-J 41 Cfs 



Still River near Lanesville, Connecticut 

l ' "- ' -. ' L_— 



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61 cfs 



Shepaug River near Roxbury, Connecticut 

i ' _ 



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^-■^•■^••i-i- , 9 4 cfs 



Pomperaug River at Southbury, Connecticut 

302 cfs 
j 7.6 cfs 



Housatonic River at Stevenson, Connecticut 



I 



I 1 800 cfs 
!H 446 Cfs 



Leadmine Brook al Thomaston, Connecticut 
H 1220 cfs 



\ 0.3 cfs 



Naugatuck River near Thomaston, Connecticut 
^~*$$&% 520 cfs 

m ,i 45 cfs 



Naugatuck River at Beacon Falls, Connecticut 

j m ' 1 1 180 cfs 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

Equivalents per million 



I 



Figure 5.- Chemical composition of streams in the Housatonic River Basin at high and low 
discharges 



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Although calcium and magnesium are the predominant 
cations in surface waters in the upper Housatonic River basin, 
iron concentrations, at times, could be a problem (discussed 
in the section Water, Utility and Quality). Iron concentrations 
in excess of 0. 3 ppm were present in water from the Housatonic 
River at Falls Village (fig. 7). Water from Tenmile and Still 
Rivers also contained high concentrations of iron. Blackberry 
River at Canaan usually contained less than 0. 3 ppm. The 
occurrence of iron in these waters is probably due to the 
solution of iron from schists in the basin. These usually con- 
tain more iron than other crystalline rocks. Also, direct 
drainage from iron deposits is a likely source of iron as de- 
posits of iron are scattered throughout the basin (although 
inoperative at the present time they were mined during the 
Revolutionary War). The reason for the very high iron concen- 
trations of 2. 6 and 1. 7 ppm in the Housatonic River at Falls 
Village is not known; however, pollution is suspected. Further 
investigation is planned to relate iron in water resources in 
Connecticut and the "source of supply". 

Other dissolved constituents such as sodium, potassium, 
sulfate, chloride, fluoride and nitrate accounted for approxi- 
mately 15 to 3C percent of the solutes present in surface waters 
in the upper Housatonic River basin. However, the concen- 
trations of these constituents are of lesser importance than the 
concentrations of constituents discussed above. 

In the lower section of the Housatonic River basin, 
crystalline rock is the principal consolidated deposit and the un- 
consolidated material consists of sand, gravel and till. Conse- 
quently, concentrations of dissolved solids in surface waters 
were usually less than 100 ppm and the waters were soft to very 
soft in contrast to the higher concentrations of dissolved solids 
and hardness (as high as 216 and 180 ppm, respectively) in the 
upper basin. Water from the Naugatuck River, however, 
contained concentrations of dissolved solids almost as high as 
those in waters in the upper basin. The chemical composition 
also varied. Approximately equal amounts of bicarbonate and 
sulfate were present, and the pH values were higher. The 
variations in chemical quality in the Naugatuck are attributed 
to industrial pollution. This is a broad picture of the chemical 
quality of the lower section and does not tell the whole story. 



18 




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Several chemical analyses are available of water 
samples collected from the Shepaug and Pomperaug Rivers. 
These represent the chemical quality at high flows when 
dilution is effective, and at low flows when ground water 
drained from the crystalline rock maintained somewhat 
higher concentrations of dissolved solids (table 2). Based 
on available data, the range in concentrations of dissolved 
solids in water collected from Shepaug River near Roxbury 
was from 51 to 61 ppm, and the range of hardness was 23 to 
36 ppm. In the Pomperaug River samples the range in 
dissolved solids was 47 to 88 ppm, and of hardness 20 to 46 
ppm. These extremes do not necessarily represent the 
minimum and maximum but, are believed to be representative. 

Downstream, the chemical quality of water from 
Housatonic River at Stevenson was rather uniform irrespective 
of streamflow (fig. 5). Stevenson is about 0. 2 mile downstream 
from Lake Zoar (storage reservoir on the Housatonic having 
a usable capacity of 331, 000, 000 cubic feet). It is believed that 
mixing within the reservoir is effective in maintaining the 
uniform quality at this downstream location. 

The chemical quality of water from Naugatuck River 
fluctuated considerably during 1957-58. Dissolved solids, in 
composites of daily water samples collected at Thomaston, 
range from 46 to 171 ppm (table 4). Daily fluctuation in solute 
material based on specific conductances (an approximate 
measure of dissolved solids) are even more striking (fig. 8). 

During low flow (usually less than 10 cfs) abrupt changes 
in chemical quality occurred from day to day. Calcium concen- 
trations increased about twofold; magnesium and potassium 
concentrations changed only slightly; and sodium concentrations 
increased approximately 4 to 6 fold. Iron concentrations were 
highest during the low flow period (fig. 9). 

Of the anions, bicarbonate concentrations decreased 
with increasing acidity. As concentrations of bicarbonate de- 
creased sulfate concentrations rose and, at times, exceeded 
those for bicarbonate. Zero concentration of bicarbonate was 
determined on November 17, 1957 when pH of the stream was 
4. 5; usually indicative of contamination by acid wastes. Water 
from Naugatuck River also contained no bicarbonate on April 



20 



Table 4. --SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL DATA, 
NAUGATUCK RIVER NEAR THOMASTON 



October 1957 



September 1958 



a Constituent 








Minimum 


b Ave rage 


Maximum 


Silica 
(SiO ? ) 








6. 3 


9. 2 


17 


Iron 
(Fe) 








. 09 


. 37 


1. 4 


Calcium 
(Ca) 








6.4 


9. 2 


15 


Magnesium 
(Mg) 








1. 8 


2. 9 


4. 9 


Sodium 
(Na) 








2. 7 


8. 3 


25 


Potassium 
(K) 








. 8 


1. 9 


4. 8 


Bicarbonate 
(HCO,) 








cO 


24 


100 


Sulfate 
(SO,) 








10 


20 


30 


Chloride 
(CI) 








1. 2 


7. 1 


13 


Fluoride 
(F) 








. 


. 2 


. 4 


Nitrate 
(NQJ 








. 6 


7. 9 


29 


Dissolved 
solids 








46 


82 


171 


Hardness as 
CaCO. (calcium & 


ma 


gnesium) 


22 


38 


80 


Specific conductance 
(micromhos at 25 C) 






68 


129 


357 


P H 








4. 5 




9. 1 


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b. Time-weighted. 

c. When pH was 4. 5 and 9- 1. At a pH of 9. 1, alkalinity consisted 

of 35 ppm carbonate (CO B ) and 1 ppm hydroxide (OH). 



21 



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19, 1958 when the pH rose to 9. 1; alkalinity consisted of 35 ppm 
of carbonate and 1 ppm of hydroxide (table 4). These are 
extremes. Generally, the pH fluctuated between 6 and 7. 

The changing chemical composition of the Naugatuck 
River was also reflected in its hardness. At Thomaston the 
water was usually soft with a range of hardness from 22 to 80 
ppm. Because of the increased concentrations of sulfate, non- 
carbonate hardness equalled (once) but never exceeded carbon- 
ate hardness. The conclusion is based on data obtained from 
analyses of composite samples so it may not apply to day to 
day changes. 

As streamflow increased, dilution had a modifying 
effect on the concentration of dissolved solids as well as the 
chemical composition of water from Naugatuck River (figs. 5 
& 8). 

Leadmine Brook, a tributary of the Naugatuck River, 
showed very little change in chemical quality irrespective of 
streamflow (fig. 5). The brook drains crystalline rock covered 
with a thin layer of surficial material. Streamflow appears to 
be sustained principally by surface water runoff and, apparently, 
very little ground water inflow; during protracted periods of no 
precipitation, the brook is dry. Consequently, it is believed 
that the chemical quality reflects the contribution of solutes 
from surface runoff with very little addition of more mineralized 
matter from ground water inflow. Because of these conditions, 
the chemical quality does not vary significantly with changes in 
streamflow. 



Ground Water 



Only a few chemical analyses of ground water in the 
Housatonic River basin are available and a comprehensive 
picture of the chemical quality cannot be presented at this time 
(table 5). Well data appear in table 6. 



24 



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26 



In the upper basin, near Salisbury, water obtained 
from two wells in crystalline rock, is very low in dissolved 
solids and hardness - 32 and 11 ppm, respectively. In sharp 
contrast, water from wells in limestone contains 6 to 8 times 
as much dissolved solids and hardness is about 20 times as 
high. Because the water-bearing formation appears to be 
dolomitic limestone, the chemical composition consists 
principally of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. The 
ratio of equivalents of calcium to those of magnesium is about 
1. 2 to 1. In well number Sy-3 the concentration of iron and 
manganese totaled 0.49 ppm (table 5). 

The chemical quality of ground water from shallow 
wells in sand and gravel deposits in the Waterbury area 
varies widely. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water 
from several wells ranged from 80 to 373 ppm and hardness 
ranged from 31 to 196 ppm (table 5). Moreover, the concentra- 
tions of most constituents also varied widely especially those 
for sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium and manganese. Such high 
concentrations, for example, as 9. 9 ppm for manganese and 
140 ppm for sulfate, as well as the wide ranges cannot be 
explained on the basis of the mineralogic characteristics of 
the water-bearing formation. Surface contamination is a 
possibility. More so, the sand and gravel aquifers are in 
contact with the Naugatuck River and are recharged, in part, 
by infiltration of water from the river. Thus, it is believed 
that the water of poor quality from the river contributes to the 
mineral content of water from sand and gravel deposits. As 
to the wide ranges, rate and duration of pumping, and distance 
from the river are controlling factors. On the basis of 
present findings, further study of the chemical quality of 
ground water in the Waterbury area is indicated, and will be 
included in future programs. 



Summary 

The chemical quality of surface waters in Housatonic 
River basin reflects the influence of diverse geology, stream- 
flow and to a lesser extent industrial pollution. In the upper 
part of the basin, waters in streams draining the limestone 
areas have a chemical composition consisting principally of 
calcium and bicarbonate, contain comparatively higher 



27 



concentrations of dissolved solids (as much as 216 ppm) 
and are moderately hard. In the lower part of the basin, 
water in streams, draining crystalline rock, is usually low 
in dissolved solids and soft. However, iron concentrations 
are usually higher. Stream pollution is present in some 
areas in the basin especially in the Naugatuck, and unusual 
changes in chemical quality are attributed to it. Chemical 
analyses of ground waters in the upper basin show wide 
differences in the chemical quality between ground water 
obtained from crystalline rock and that obtained from dolomitic 
limestone. The chemical quality of some ground waters from 
sand and gravel in the Naugatuck River valley in and near 
Waterbury shows the effect of infiltration of water of poor 
quality from the river. Others appear to be unaffected and 
have a more desirable chemical quality. 



CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN 



Surface Waters 



A casual evaluation of the chemical quality of the 
Connecticut River and its tributaries might be misleading. 
Being an interstate river flowing through industrialized areas, 
the Connecticut and many of its tributaries are polluted in 
varying degrees by inflow of domestic sewage and industrial 
wastes. It could well be concluded that the chemical quality 
of the surface waters has deteriorated beyond the point of no 
return. Unfortunately, no data are available that show what 
the chemical quality was long ago. In some of the smaller 
streams, especially during low flow, the poor chemical 
quality is attributable to pollution. Yet the mineral content 
of some streams, especially the Connecticut and Farmington 
Rivers, does not appear to be unusual in view of the geology 
in the basin. 



28 



In contrast to the diverse geology in the western 
highlands, bedrock in the central lowland consists mainly 
of Triassic shales and sandstone. Pre-Triassic crystalline 
rocks occur in the lower part of the basin. Overlying the 
bedrock are unconsolidated deposits of till, sand, and gravel. 
Minerals in these deposits are moderately soluble and con- 
tribute only small quantities of solutes. 

In water from the Connecticut River at Thompsonville, 
dissolved solids ranged from 46 to 91 ppm (table 7). Dissolved 
solids in samples collected from the Farmington River at 
Rainbow were slightly less - 43 to 80 ppm (table 8). Water 
from both rivers was very soft. During the same period and 
at the same locations shown above, hardness of water from the 
Connecticut River ranged from 24 to 53 ppm and of the 
Farmington River, 20 to 60 ppm. The chemical quality of some 
of the smaller tributaries such as the Salmon River near East 
Hampton was similar to that of the major rivers. Other small 
streams such as the Scantic and Park Rivers had a much wider 
range in dissolved solids. Upper limits were 138 and 199 ppm 
respectively (table 9). These concentrations were determined 
on water samples collected during low flow and the increase 
can, in part, be attributed to pollution. 

Although concentrations of dissolved solids were low, 
iron concentrations could become a problem. Iron is quite 
prevalent in most surface and ground waters throughout the 
State. As mentioned earlier, the reddish brown color of the 
sandstone in the basin is due to iron oxide present as a 
cementing agent; iron carbonate and hydroxide may also be 
present. These same iron compounds can also be present in 
the unconsolidated deposits. So the iron in water is obtained 
from these sources of supply. Industrial wastes may also be 
a contributing source of iron. In water from the Connecticut 
River, especially, iron concentrations fluctuated within a wide 
range - 0.15 to 1. 3 ppm (fig. 10). Some of the tributaries also 
contained high concentrations of iron (table 9). 

Although the minerals of the rocks and waste effluent 
contributed to the solute content of streams in the basin, 
dilution, especially during periods of high streamflow, "was 
effective in reducing concentration of solute material (fig. 11 
& 12). However, reduction of concentration by dilution is not 



29 



Table 7. --SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL DATA, 
CONNECTICUT RIVER AT THOMPSONVILLE 

October 1955 - September 1956 



a Constituent 










Minimum 


bAverage 


Maximum 


Silica 
(SiO,) 










1. 8 


5. 8 


8. 5 


Iron 
(Fe) 










. 15 


. 39 


1. 3 


Calcium 
(Ca) 










6. 2 


10 


15 


Magnesium 
(Mg) 










1. 3 


1. 9 


3. 3 


Sodium 
(Na) 










2. 7 


4. 9 


8. 


Potassium 
(K) 










. 9 


1. 4 


1. 9 


Bicarbonate 

(HCO,) 










17 


28 


51 


Sulfate 
(SOJ 










7. 5 


13 


18 


Chloride 
(CI) 










2. 9 


6. 3 


11 


Fluoride 
(F) 










. 


. 1 


. 2 


Nitrate 

(Ncy 










. 1 


2. 2 


3. 8 


Dissolved 
solids 










46 


67 


91 


c Total Hardness 
as CaCO, 








24 


34 


53 


Specific conductance 
(micromhos at 25 C) 






67. 5 


103 


149 


P H 










6. 1 




7. 1 


Color 










5 


8 


15 


Oxygen 

Consumed, unfiltered 


sam 


pies 


4. 2 


8. 4 


14 


Oxygen 
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4. 8 


6. 8 



a. In parts per million except pH, color and specific conductance. 

b. Time-weighted. 

c. Includes hardness of all polyvalent cations reported. 



30 



Table 8. --SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL DATA 
FARMINGTON RIVER AT RAINBOW 



October 1957 



September 1958 



a Constituent 










Minimum 


bAverage 


Maximum 


Silica 
(SiO ) 










5. 1 


8. 4 


12 


Iron 
(Fe) 










. 10 


. 21 


. 44 


Calcium 
(Ca) 










5. 6 


9. 1 


12 


Magnesium 
(Mg) 










1. 4 


2. 


3. 


Sodium 
(Na) 










2. 6 


4. 5 


6. 1 


Potassium 
(K) 










. 7 


1. 1 


1. 7 


Bicarbonate 

(hcoj 










10 


26 


56 


Sulfate 
(SO.) 










9.6 


14 


24 


Chloride 
(CI) 










3. 4 


5. 2 


6. 6 


Fluoride 
(F) 










. 


. 1 


. 3 


Nitrate 
(NQa) 










. 7 


3. 


4. 9 


Dissolved 
solids 










43 


64 


80 


Hardness 
as CaC0 3 (cal< 


zium &: 


mag 


nesium20 


33 


60 


Specific conduc 
(micromhos at 


:tance 
25°C) 






62 


95 


148 


P H 










6. 3 




7. 2 


Color 










3 


8 


20 


Oxygen 
Consumed, unfilt< 


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sam 


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3 




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4 



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unlimited. In the Connecticut River at Thompsonville, 
concentrations of dissolved solids (based on specific conduct- 
ance data) decreased rapidly as discharge increased to about 
20, 000 cubic feet per second (cfs). They decreased gradually 
thereafter as discharge rose 40, 000 cfs, and then remained 
comparatively stable (fig. 13). For smaller streams the 
initial decrease in the concentrations of dissolved solids may 
be more abrupt. Then, too, the concentrations of dissolved 
solids become relatively stable. 



Ground Water 



A preliminary evaluation shows that much of the ground 
water in the basin is of good quality. Concentrations of dis- 
solved solids ranged from 36 to 285 ppm and hardness ranged 
from 16 to 132 ppm. These ranges should not be regarded as 
representative for the entire basin but more as indices. How- 
ever, the ranges do illustrate differences in the quality of 
waters from different formations. Water from a well in sand 
and gravel contained 285 ppm of dissolved solids whereas water 
from till contained only 44 ppm of dissolved solids. Hardness 
was highest in water obtained from basalt and lowest in water 
from sand and gravel. 

Such differences in quality of water can also be 
expected from one site to another, even within a formation, 
because of mineral composition, recharge and discharge 
characteristics, and possible contamination- -especially in 
shallow wells. 

Perhaps the greatest range in concentration of dissolved 
solids can be expected in water from sand and gravel. Based 
on available data, the range of dissolved solids extended from 
48 to 285 ppm and hardness from 22 to 132 ppm. What the 
composition of water might be from a given well would be 
difficult to predict. Generally, the chemical composition 
consisted principally of calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate 



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37 



and nitrate. Various concentrations and combinations of 
these constituents were determined in the wells examined 
(table 10 and 11). Nitrate concentrations as high as 86 ppm 
were determined in water from several shallow wells and are 
believed to have resulted from surface contamination. Sur- 
prisingly, iron concentrations exceed 0. 3 ppm in only 3 wells 
of the 28 wells sampled. Usually, manganese concentrations 
(also a troublesome constituent in water if concentrations are 
about 0. 3 ppm) were less than 0.1 ppm. The high concentra- 
tions of 0. 97 ppm in water from well EW 57 and 0. 60 ppm from 
well GR 145 are unusual. Further investigation is necessary 
to determine the areal distribution of manganese in water from 
sand and gravel deposits. 

Water from sandstone and crystalline rock had a 
narrower range of dissolved solids and hardness - 58 to 167 ppm 
and 33 to 104 ppm respectively. The chemical composition was 
more uniform - principally calcium and bicarbonate. Water 
from several wells contain iron concentrations as high as 
1.1 ppm. Such concentrations would present a problem of iron 
removal. Except for iron, the chemical quality of water from 
sandstone and crystalline rock was good. However, additional 
data are needed to determine if this classification can be applied 
generally to water from sandstone and crystalline- rock aquifers 
in the basin. 

The chemical quality of water from basalt was about the 
same as that from crystalline rock. In one sample the dissolved 
solids concentration was 184 ppm and the hardness was 132 ppm. 
These concentrations were higher than those determined in water 
from crystalline rock. 

Till is of lesser importance as a water-bearing formation 
because of its low yield. However, the chemical quality of water 
-was better than that from any other formation in the basin. 
Additional data are needed to adequately appraise the chemical 
quality of "water obtained from till. 



38 



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42 



Table 11. --DATA OF WELLS IN THE CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN 



Well Depth Diam. 

No. (feet) (in. ) 



Water bearing formation 



Yield 



Owner 
Location 



A-62 


87 


6 


A- 68 


101 


6 


A-81 


82 


6 


Bl-19 


47 


4 


Bl-27 


210 


6 


Bl-31 


96 


6 


Bl-32 


609 


10-8 


Bl-49 


66 





Bs-46 


255 


6 


Bs-78 


7. 5 


36 


Cr-88 


66 


6 


EH-1 


32 


8 


EH-37 


258 


8 


EH-42 


26 


36 


El-22 


21 


30 


El-27 


28 


24 


El-28 


92 


8 


EW-6 


198 


6 


EW-10 


160 


6 


EW-49 


85 


6 


EW-57 


6 


2 


EW-58 


12-1/2 


36 


EW-59 


9 


36 


EW-60 


10 


36 


F-3 


120 


6-8 


F-6 


37 


6 


F-16 


55 


6 


F-20 


353 


6 


F-78 


438 


8 


Gl-46 


210 


6 


Gl-76 


353 


6 


Gl-103 


52 


2 


Gl-104 


23 


24 


Gr-26 


328 


6 


Gr-82 


53 


6 



Sedimentary 


15 


Crystalline bedrock 


4± 


Sand and gravel 


8 


Sand and gravel 


20 


Basalt 


20 


Basalt 


12 


Sedimentary 


340 


Sand and gravel 




Crystalline bedrock 


5 


Sand and gravel 


-- 


Basalt 


6+ 


Sand and gravel 


80 


Sand and gravel 


500 


Sand and gravel 


30 



Ground Moraine 

Ground Moraine 

Crystalline bedrock 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sedimentary 

Basalt 

Sedimentary 

Crystalline bedrock 

Crystalline bedrock 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sedimentary 
Sand and gravel 



20 

30 
7 
3 



30 
25 

8 

5 
40 

6 

3/4 

15 

3± 

6-1/2 
30 



J. J. Maher, Arch Rd. , 3200' W. of College 

Highway, Avon, Conn. 

Elmer Pennala, Chevas Rd. , Avon, Conn. 

(1000' W. of Lovely St. ) 

Chester R. Woodford, Nod Rd. , 1 mi. N. of Rt. 

44, nr Avon, Conn. 

N. Nigro, Newberry Rd. , Bloomfield 2-1/2 mi. 

N. E. of Bloomfield, Conn. 

Mrs. R. D. Shaw, Duncaster Rd. , Bloomfield, 

2-1/2 mi. N. W. of Bloomfield, Conn. 

E. Case, 262 Duncaster Rd. , Bloomfield, 2 mi. 

N. W. of Bloomfield, Conn. 

Conn. General Life Insurance Co. , Hartford, 

Conn. , 1 mi. So. of Bloomfield, Conn. 

R. Kohler, 320 Woodland Ave. , Bloomfield, Conn. 

L. D. Minor, Hill St. , Bristol, Conn. 

L. A. Dodd, Old Waterbury Rd. , Bristol, Conn. 

D. DeMers, at corner North Rd. and Christian 
Hill Rd. , Cromwell, Conn. 

First National Stores Inc. , Park Ave. , East 

Hartford, Conn. 

First National Stores Inc. , Park Ave. , East 

Hartford, Conn. 

Robert DePietro, Forest St. , East Hartford, Conn. , 

2-1/2 mi. ESE of East Hartford, Conn. 

Henry Aberle, Shenipsit Rd. Ellington, 2 mi. S. E. 

of Ellington, Conn. 

P. M. Hansen, Cider Mill Rd. , Ellington, 2 mi. E. 

of Ellington, Conn. 

C. O. Peterson, RFD #1, Ellington, Conn., 2-1/2 

mi. S. E. of Ellington, Conn. 

E. Woolam, Warehouse Pt. , 2-1/2 mi. S. W. of 
Broad Brook, Conn. 

L. Stoughton, Warehouse Pt. , 3-1/4 mi. N. W. of 

Broad Brook, Conn. 

Bass Bros. , Warehouse Pt. , 2 mi. E. of Warehouse 

Pt. , Conn. 

Joseph Reichle, Broad Brook, 0. 6 mi. SW of 

Broad Brook, Conn. 

Stephan Haydusk, Windsorville, Conn. 

R. Miercier, 140 Phelps Rd. , Warehouse Pt. , Conn. 

Henry Kolodziej, Broad Brook, Conn. , E. Windsor 

(Wells Rd) 

T. E. Stephenson, Town Farm Rd. , 1 mi. NE 

Farmington, Conn. 

Herbert Shirley, Farmington Ave. W. of R. R. , 

Farmington (Rt. 4) Conn. 

R. A. Weisner, Wolf Pit Rd. , 250' W. of Birdseye 

Rd. , Farmington Ctr. (1 mi E), Conn. 

W. W. Fisher, Old Mtn. Rd. , 2 mi. N. of 

Farmington, Cam. 

Gross -Ite and Whitman Mfg. Co' s., nr. 

Farmington, Conn. 

Louis Scaglia, 409 Hopewell Rd. , So. Glastonbury, 

2 mi. S. E. of So. Glastonbury, Conn. 

Renato Massa, 85 Quarry Rd. E. of Rt. 2, 

Glastonbury, Conn. 

S. N. Aiello, 54 Pond Circle, 3 mi. E. Glastonbury, 

Conn. 

Ray Dailey, New London Tpke. , 4 mi SE of 

Glastonbury, Conn. 

R. E. Case, W. Granby PO, nr W. Granby, Conn. 

G. S. Fogarty, Quarry Rd. at Zimmer Rd. , N. of 

Granby, Conn. 



43 



Table 11. --DATA OF WELLS IN THE CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN- -Continued 



Well 
No. 



Depth 
(feet) 



Diam. 
(in.) 



Water bearing formation 



Yield 



Owner 
Location 



Gr-90 



65 



Gr-145 


140 


6 


M-46 


60 


10 


M-57 


52 


12 


M-58 


64 


12 


Mf-164 


135 


6 


Mf-165 


66 


6 


Mt-262 


67 


6 


Mt-266 


309 


6 


Mt-275 


140 


6 


Mt-285 


51 


6 


P-36 


283 


6 


P-66 


146 


6 


Pv-19 


220 


6 


S-8 


22 


24 


S-76 


88 


6 


S-130 


202 


6 


S-144 


140 


6 


S-256 


100 


6 


Si-59a 


301 


8 



Si-75 



55 



So-24 


135 


6 


So-42 


13 


1-1/2 


So- 61 


28 


1-1/2 


SW-68 


9 


24 


SW-69 


30 


24 


SW-71 


56 


12 


SW-72 


30 


108 to 
72 


SW-73 


30 


30 


V-8 


150 


6 


V-47 


57 


6 


W-9 


9 


36 


W-ll 


20 


36 


WL-3 


80 


10 


WL-4 


32 


8 


WL-10 


68 


8 



Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sedimentary 

Basalt 

Crystalline bedrock 

Crystalline bedrock 

Crystalline bedrock 

Crystalline bedrock 

Crystalline bedrock 

Sand and gravel 

Sedimentary 

Sand and gravel 
Crystalline bedrock 

Sedimentary 
Sand and gravel 
Sedimentary 
Crystalline bedrock 

Sand and gravel 

Crystalline bedrock 
Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 

Crystalline bedrock 

Crystalline bedrock 

Sand and gravel 

Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 
Sand and gravel 



5 D. R. Schively, Notch Rd. 2 mi. north of Granby , 

Conn. 
3 W. Smiley, College hiway, N. Granby, Conn. 

750 City of Manchester Water Department, Manchester, 

Conn. 
250 Hartman Tobacco Co. , 2 mi. NW of Manchester, 

Conn. 
450 City of Manchester Water Dept. (Love Lane) 

Manchester, Conn. 
50 Arthur Meckley, RFD, Rockfall, Conn. 1 mi. east 

of Middlefield, Conn. 
12 George Cunningham, Lake Beseck, Middlefield, 

1-1/2 mi. west of Middlefield, Conn. 
1/4 AEC Hartford Research Center, River Rd. 0. 3 mi. 

NW of Auto Shop at CANEL, Middletown, Conn. 

J. C. Muller, R. D. # 2, Middletown, Conn, (on 

River Rd. 0.5 mi. S. of CANEL) 

J. C. Muller, Rt. 2, Middletown, Conn. ,( at jet. 

River Rd. & Maromas Rd. 0. 7 mi. S. of CANEL) 
2 AEC Hartford Res. Center (River Rd. 500' SW 

Auto Shop at CANEL) Middletown, Conn. 
17 R. Wetzel, Penfield Hill, 3 mi. E. of Portland, 

Conn. 
15 John Harper, Ames Hollow Rd. , 2 mi. east of 

Portland, Conn. 
5-7 Walter Sullivan, Pinnacle Rock Farm, Plainville, 

Conn. 

F. Madin, Prospect St. , Southington, Conn. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jacobowsky, DeFashion St. 

Southington, Conn. 

John Welch, Flanders Rd. , Southington, Conn. 
14 Ralph Mongillo, Woodruff St. , Southington, Conn. 

Andrew Hubeny, Burritt St. , Southington, Conn. 
10-14 F. H. Andrus estate W. of W. Ledge Rd. , near 

W. Simsbury, Conn. 
5 Ingvald Ollestad, 45 Wildwood Rd. , Weatogue, 

Conn. 
4-1/2 C. Bridge, 1-1/2 mi. S. E. of Somers, Conn. 

M. McGuinness, Thomas Rd. , 1 mi. N. W. of 

Somers, Conn. 

S. Kismn, Bryant Rd. , 2-1/2 mi. N. W. of 

Somers, Conn. 

P. P. Bielski, E. Windsor Hill, 1-1/2 mi. E. of 

Windsor Hill, Conn. 

J. A. Dupont, Burnham St. , So. Windsor, 2 mi. 

S. E. of So. Windsor, Conn. 
400 Kupchunos Bros. 2 mi. NW of Wapping, Conn. 

Peter Yonika, Strong Rd. , 0. 6 mi.SE of E. 

Windsor Hill, So. Windsor, Conn. 
4-5 H. L. Belknap, Wapping, Conn. , (Barbour Hill 

Rd. ) 3/4 mi. E. of E. Windsor, Conn. 
5 Frank Bronkie, Lake St. , Vernon, 1-1/2 mi. 

S. of Vernon, Conn. 
10 John Rogers, RFD, Vernon, 3/4 mi. S. W. of 

Vernon, Conn. 

Mrs. M. Jorozko, Dudley Town Rd. , Windsor, 

Conn. , (Dudley Town Rd) 2. 2 mi. WSW of 

Windsor, Conn. 

H. Barber, Windsor, Conn. , 3-1/2 mi. No. of 

Windsor, Conn. 
300 Bradley Field, Windsor Locks, Conn., 2-1/2 mi. 

W. of Windsor Locks, Conn. 
125 Bradley Fid. , Conn., 2-1/2 mi. W. of Windsor 

Locks, Conn. 
300 Robert Rodelli, Elm St. , Windsor Locks, Conn. , 

1-1/2 mi. SW of Windsor Locks, Conn. 



44 



Summary 



Flowing through the central lowland, the Connecticut 
River and its tributaries drain an area of sandstone, shale, 
basalt and crystalline rock overlain by unconsolidated de- 
posits of sand, gravel and till. The mineral matter is 
moderately soluble. This is reflected in the solute content 
of the major streams. Concentrations of dissolved solids 
ranged from 40 to 90 ppm. In the smaller streams the concen- 
trations of dissolved solids were much higher. Most streams 
are polluted in varying degree. Although the increase in 
mineral content from industrial wastes is undetermined, the 
mineral content of major streams does not appear excessive. 
Streamflow is a moderating influence. Some of the smaller 
streams have higher concentrations that may be attributable 
to pollution. Generally, the chemical quality of surface 
■waters in the Connecticut River basin range from good to fair. 

Ground water is obtained from bedrock and unconso- 
lidated water-bearing formations. However, with the excep- 
tion of till, wells in unconsolidated formations are more 
productive than those in bedrock. Generally, the chemical 
quality of water from sand and gravel is good. Concentrations 
of dissolved solids were 300 ppm or less and, usually the water 
was soft. Water from several wells contained concentrations 
of iron and manganese that would be troublesome. Nitrate 
concentrations were also high in water from several wells. 

The chemical quality of water from crystalline rock 
and sandstone is similar to that in water obtained from sand 
and gravel. However, a few exceptions have been noted. 

Several chemical analyses show that water from till 
has a very low dissolved solids content and is very soft. Un- 
fortunately, the yield of water from till is very small. 



45 



QUINNIPIAC RIVER BASIN 



Surface Waters 



The chemical composition of the Quinnipiac River is 
similar to that of the Connecticut and Farmington Rivers - 
principally calcium and bicarbonate. This would be expected 
because all streams in the central region drain an area of 
sandstone overlain by sand and gravel. However, the concen- 
trations of dissolved solids and hardness in the Quinnipiac 
River fluctuated over a wider range than those for the other 
major streams (tables 12 &t 13). These differences in 
quantity rather than kind of material in solution are attributed 
to the greater dilution potential of major streams such as the 
Connecticut and Farmington Rivers. 

The range in dissolved solids determined for composites 
of water samples collected daily from the Quinnipiac River was 
comparatively narrow - 103 to 174 ppm. Daily specific conduct- 
ances indicate, however, that concentrations of dissolved 
solids fluctuated over a wider range (fig. 14). 

During high flow, dilution reduced the concentrations 
of solutes in the Quinnipiac River at Wallingford. On April 20, 
1954 when daily mean discharge was 39C cfs, concentrations of 
dissolved solids were reduced to 84 ppm and hardness to 43 ppm. 
During the period April 6 - 1C, 1957, streamflow averaged 
699 cfs and concentrations of dissolved solids (estimated) were 
78 ppm, and hardness was 46 ppm. These concentrations are 
similar to those determined for the Connecticut and Farmington 
Rivers. Whether the solute content would be reduced even 
more with higher discharges is not known. However, it is 
believed that the chemical quality of the major streams in the 
central region is similar. Apparent differences in concentra- 
tions of solute material are attributable to the greater dilution 
potential of the Connecticut and Farmington Rivers in comparison 
to that of the Quinnipiac. 



46 



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47 



Table 13. --SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL DATA, 
QUINNIPIAC RIVER AT WALLINGFORD 



October 1956 - September 1957 



a Constituent 








Minimum 


bAverage 


Maximum 


Silica 
(SiOJ 








9. 8 


13 


24 


Iron 
(Fe) 








. 12 


.29 


. 54 


Calcium 
(Ca) 








16 


23 


28 


Magnesium 

(Mg) 








3. 6 


4. 7 


6.4 


Sodium 

(Na) 








6. 8 


10 


14 


Potassium 
(K) 








1. 2 


2.0 


2. 7 


Bicarbonate 
(HCOJ 








32 


68 


110 


Sulfate 
(SOJ 








16 


24 


29 


Chloride 
(CI) 








6. 5 


9.6 


13 


Fluoride 
(F) 








. 


.1 


. 2 


Nitrate 

(noj 








3. 2 


8. 5 


15 


Dissolved 
solids 








103 


135 


174 


Hardness 

as CaCO-(calcium 


&ma 


.gnesium) 


c 46 


77 


95 


Specific conductance 

o 
(micromhos at 25 C) 






123 


214 


257 


PH 








6. 6 




7. 1 


Color 








2 


7 


15 


Oxygen 

Consumed, unfiltered 


sam 


pies 


3 


5 


11 


Oxygen 

Consumed, filtered sampl 


es 


2 


4 


6 



a. In parts per million except pH, color and specific conductance 

b. Time-weighted 

c. By complexometric titration 



48 



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49 



Summary 

A complete definition of the chemical quality of water 
resources in the Quinnipiac River basin cannot be made at 
this time. Data are available only for the main stem at 
Wailingford. There the Quinnipiac contained moderate 
concentrations of dissolved solids and was moderately hard. 
The concentrations were usually higher than those in other 
rivers in the central part of the State. The chemical quality 
of ground water has not been appraised. 



THAMES RIVER BASIN 



Surface Waters 



The chemical quality of surface waters in the Thames 
River basin was generally as good or better than the chemical 
quality of surface waters in other basins throughout the State. 
The waters contained less dissolved solids and were softer. 
There were some differences in chemical composition, but 
these were more apparent in the concentrations of the indivi- 
dual constituents and their relation to one another. These 
characteristics evolve from the interaction of geology, 
streamflow, and to a lesser extent stream pollution. 

Located in the eastern highlands, streams in the basin 
drain an area of crystalline rock overlain with unconsolidated 
sand and gravel. Because of the relatively low solubility of 
crystalline rocks only small quantities of mineral matter are 
dissolved. Granite typically is composed of silica, sodium, 
potassium, calcium, aluminum, and probably contain some 
iron. The unconsolidated deposits are believed to be similar 
in mineral composition and solubility to the granitic rocks from 
which they largely were derived. These geologic characteris- 
tics are reflected in the comparatively lower mineral content of 
surface waters in the basin than that present in surface waters 
in other basins in the State. Concentrations of dissolved solids 
as Low as 26 ppm and hardness as low as 1C ppm have been 
determined for some surface waters -(tables 14 and 15). 



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53 



Dilution by streamflow is also an important factor 
and is reflected in the fluctuations of dissolved solids in the 
Quinebaug River at Putnam and Jewett City (figs. 15 & 16). 

The part of the mineral content in water from some 
streams that can be attributed to pollution has not been 
determined. At times, however, the change in chemical 
quality indicates pollution. For example, the acid condition 
of Willimantic River near South Coventry during the period 
January 7 - 10, 1956 (pH 4. 3 to 4. 5) was unusual. In contrast, 
on May 17, 1957 an alkaline condition was present (pH 9. 0). 
These are extreme pH values. Usually, the pH values ranged 
from 6. to 7. 0. Generally, the mineral content of streams 
in the basin for which data are available, does not appear 
unusually different from what would be expected under natural 
conditions and the chemical quality compares favorably with 
that of streams in other basins. 

For example, the Quinebaug River is the major river 
in the basin. At Putnam it has a drainage area of 331 square 
miles. During the period of October 11 - 31, 1957 the concen- 
tration of dissolved solids in a composite of daily water samples 
was 162 ppm, of hardness 31 ppm, and mean daily discharge was 
43 cfs. Although the discharge is much higher than the lowest 
discharge of record (8 cfs during 1929-56), it does represent 
streamflow sustained for the most part by ground water inflow 
and possibly waste effluent. It is assumed that the concentration 
of dissolved solids is representative of low-flow conditions. 
Even under these conditions, the chemical quality does not 
compare unfavorably with that of surface waters in other basins. 

During a comparable period, the average concentration 
of dissolved solids in composites of water samples from the 
Naugatuck River near Thomaston was 142 ppm and the average 
hardness was 46 ppm. In composites of water samples from 
the Farmington River at Rainbow, the average concentration of 
dissolved solids was 77 ppm and the average hardness 44 ppm. 

Data on chemical quality of other streams in the basin 
are not available for the same period of record as for the Quine- 
baug River at Putnam (1957-1958). However, under somewhat 
similar conditions of high and low discharge, the concentrations 
of dissolved solids did not exceed those for the Putnam station 
and the minimum concentrations were lower. 



54 



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56 



No comparison of the chemical quality is being made 
of the Quinebaug River at Putnam and at Jewett City. At the 
latter point the drainage area is about twice that at Putnam. 
Then, too, the available record is for the period 1955-1956; a 
period marked by hurricane floods and generally high flows. 
Under these conditions, the range in concentrations of 
dissolved solids was 37 - 82 ppm, and the range of hardness 
14-44 ppm. 

Irrespective of the sampling period, the chemical 
composition of waters from all streams in the Thames River 
basin consisted principally of sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, 
and sulfate. Generally, the concentrations of sodium and 
calcium were approximately the same. At Putnam, the con- 
centrations of sodium were slightly greater than those for 
calcium except during periods of low flow, when streamflow 
was sustained principally by ground water inflow. At such 
times, the concentrations of sodium were 2-3 times greater 
than those for calcium. 

Stream pollution is not entirely excluded as a probable 
cause for the differences in concentrations of sodium and 
calcium. However, if stream pollution were intermittent it 
is believed that the sodium - calcium relationship would be 
erratic. On the other hand if pollutants were continually dis- 
charged into the stream, the ratio of sodium to calcium would 
be approximately the same irrespective of flow. 

A possible explanation may lie in the mineralogy of the 
deposits drained by the Quinebaug and its tributaries upstream 
from Putnam. Drainage during high flow consists principally 
of surface runoff in contact with the sand and gravel deposits. 
Mineralogically, these deposits may contain approximately 
equivalent quantities of sodium and calcium. Ground water is 
also a component of streams at high flow but to a lesser extent 
than surface runoff. During low flow, the ground-water portion 
is greater and at times is the only contributing source of stream- 
flow. Drainage may be from the cracks and fissures in the bed- 
rock plus the unconsolidated deposits and material weathered 
from the base rock. If the deposits are rich in sodium such as 
the mineral albite and to a lesser extent plagioclase (which 
consists of both sodium and calcium silicates) a higher ratio of 
sodium to calcium in solution would be expected. This explan- 
ation is only a tentative hypothesis which can only be verified 



57 



by further investigation, especially mineralogical analyses. 

Concentrations of iron as high as 0. 93 ppm have been 
determined in surface water in the basin (fig. 17 & 18). The 
concentrations of iron varied with streamflow and were high- 
est during low flow. Iron oxide is an important cementing 
agent in unconsolidated deposits in the eastern part of the 
state. Because of the availability of a source of supply, iron 
is always present in water. 



Summary 

Surface waters in the Thames River basin drain an 
area that consists of crystalline rock overlain with sand and 
gravel, and till. Because of the relatively low solubility of 
these deposits, only moderate quantities of mineral matter 
are dissolved. This condition is reflected in the chemical 
quality of surface waters in the basin with moderate quantities 
of dissolved solids and very low hardness (table 14). The 
chemical composition of the surface waters consists princi- 
pally of sodium, calcium, bicarbonate and sulfate and lesser 
quantities of other constituents naturally found in surface 
waters. Iron concentrations, though lower than those of the 
above constituents, are an important consideration insofar as 
the utility of these waters is concerned. Many streams show 
some evidence of pollution but the direct contribution to the 
mineral content of the streams is not known. At present, no 
data are available on the chemical quality of ground water in 
the area. This situation will be remedied as the investigation 
of chemical quality of water resources in the state progresses. 



TEMPERATURE 



Surface Water 



Temperature of surface water usually fluctuates in a 
cyclic pattern that follows seasonal changes. Shallow streams 
in particular will follow changes in air temperature closely. 
In contrast, deep rivers follow changes in air temperature more 
slowly and thermal gradients are often established from surface 
to bottom. This cyclic seasonal pattern, however, may be 



58 




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60 



modified by inflow of industrial wastes and domestic sewage 
into a stream. It may also be slightly displaced from year to 
year depending on the variations in climate. 

Temperature influences many of the chemical and 
physical processes that take place in a stream. The solubility 
of gases and of mineral matter is related to temperature. Ox- 
idation of organic matter is promoted or retarded with changes 
in temperature. Algae and bacterial growth are similarly 
affected. Such hydrologic properties as density and viscosity 
vary with temperature. In the disposal of liquid wastes into a 
stream, differences of temperature between two liquids (among 
other factors) will determine depth of stratification and length 
of time to reach thermal equilibrium. Viscosity will affect the 
settling rate of suspended sediment. 

In addition to the effects mentioned, temperature of 
water has a bearing on its utility. Water is an excellent heat- 
exchange medium and is used extensively for cooling purposes. 
Temperature of water is an indirect measure of the capacity 
of water to absorb heat energy and is a measure of its utility 
for cooling purposes. 

Temperature of surface waters in Connecticut follow a 
seasonal pattern, decreasing erratically late in October, hover- 
ing near freezing during the winter months, and gradually rising 
in April. Ninety five percent of the time water temperatures in 
major streams in Connecticut equalled or were less than about 
80 degrees Fahrenheit (table 16). The maximum temperature 
shown in figure 19 occurred during the summer months. 

The cyclic seasonal pattern of water temperature is 
apparent for all streams, but the trend, if any, cannot be pre- 
dicted because of the short period of record; one year for most 
streams and 3 years for the Housatonic River at Falls Village. 
For the Scantic River at Broad Brook, 5 years of record are 
available but no trend is apparent (fig. 20). 



61 



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1953- 54 1954-55 



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Figure20 - Monthly mean water tempeature, Scantic River at 
Broad Brook, 1953-58 



64 



Ground Water 

Temperature of ground water is essentially uniform 
in contrast to the cyclic pattern and wide seasonal fluctuations 
of surface water. However, some change in temperature is 
observed in shallow wells due to fluctuation in air temperature 
(wells Afl and Sbl, table 17). But at greater depths the effect 
of air temperature is less apparent. For example, the temper- 
ature of v/ater in well F7 fluctuated only 3 degrees (50 - 53 F) 
during 1957-59 irrespective of air temperature (table 17). Be- 
cause of its rather uniform temperature, ground water is used 
extensively for cooling purposes. 

In Connecticut, measurements of water temperature are 
made at nine observation wells. Data obtained from three of 
these wells are shown in table 17. These are representative of 
water temperatures in shallow wells in unconsolidated material 
and deeper wells in bedrock. 



SUSPENDED SEDIMENT 

Fluvial sediment is derived principally from soil particles 
eroded from the land surface and transported by surface runoff. 
The quantity eroded and transported will vary with land use, stage 
of land erosion, vegetal cover, intensity and duration of rainfall, 
and topography. . The stream bed and banks are contributing 
sources of supply. Bank erosion may be severe. Deposited sed- 
iment can be suspended again, move in a series of hops, roll and 
slide along the bed depending on the density of the material and 
turbulence. The composition of the fluvial sediment - clay, silt 
and sand will vary with the availability and erodability of these 
materials in the drainage basins. 

Fluvial sediment indicates or can cause many problems. 
Initially, fluvial sediment represents wastage of the land and 
indicates a soil-conservation problem. Sediment may be depos- 
ited in reservoirs, lakes or ponds and thereby decrease the 
capacity of these facilities. Sediment in a stream used as a 
source of water supply requires removal before the water can be 



65 



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used (assuming it is satisfactory otherwise). Recreational 
use of streams is affected if they are heavily laden with sed- 
iment. In recent years, sediment has to be considered in 
conjunction with disposal of radioactive wastes as they are 
capable of adsorbing and transporting radioactivity in varying 
degrees. 

This report will discuss only the sediment character- 
istics of Scantic River at Broad Brook where continuous deter- 
minations of sediment have been made since 1952. Other 
streams will be covered in subsequent reports as the investi- 
gation of quality of surface water progresses. 

Scantic River meanders through a tobacco-growing 
area of gently rolling lowland. Elevations along the river are 
as high as 150 ft. above sea level. In places the width of the 
flood plain is about 0. 2 mile and becomes narrower in the 
vicinity of Broad Brook. At this location, the drainage area 
is 98. 4 square miles and consists principally of sandy soil 
mixed with some silt and clay. 

The sediment discharge rate in the Scantic at Broad 
Brook is less than 10 tons per day about 50 percent of the time 
(table 18). However, with rising stage and increased stream 
discharge, sediment discharge increases rapidly for short 
periods (fig. 21). 

The sediment load followed no particular pattern as to 
the time of year but increased concurrently with intense and 
prolonged rainfall. Generally, the sediment load was lowest 
during the summer months. During the hurricane floods in 
1955, however, the maximum suspended load of 6, 670 tons per 
day occurred on August 19. The total sediment load for the 
month of August was 12, 115 tons of which 10, 890 tons passed 
the Broad Brook station during August 19 and 20. This sediment 
load was 70 percent of the total load of 15, 569 tons for the water 
year 1955. In October 1955, additional floods occurred. The 
monthly sediment load was 4, 074 tons or 47 percent of the total 
annual load for water year 1956 (fig. 22). 

Records of sediment discharge prior to 1952 are not 
available for comparison and the current record is insufficient 



67 



Table 18. --PERCENT OF TIME DAILY SEDIMENT LOAD 

(TONS PER DAY) EQUALLED OR 
EXCEEDED THOSE TABULATED, 
SCANTIC RIVER AT BROAD BROOK 







Percent 










5 


10 


25 


50 


75 


99 


1952-53 


105 


58 


17 


< 


5 


3 


1953-54 


23 


13 


8 


7 


5 


2 


1954-55 


54 


29 


11 


7 


6 


3 


1955-56 


75 


35 


12 


6 


4 


3 


1956-57 


17 


9 


6 


5 


5 


2 


1957-58 


46 


25 


9 


4 


3 


2 



68 



IOPOO 



IOOO 



T3 



c 
o 



09 

E 
'o 
a> 
</i 

•a 
a> 

■a 
e 
a> 

a. 



100 



10 



.9 
8 
.7 
.6 
.5 

.4 




J I ' 



J I I ' l l I I I 



J I I I I I II 



J L 



I I I I 



3 4 5 6 78910 



100 

Discharge cfs 



IOOO 



10,000 



Figure 21-Relation of suspended sediment load to discharge, Scantic River at Broad Brook, 1954-58 



69 




ON DJ F MAM JJ AS 

1952-53 



1953-54 



1954-55 



1955-56 



1956-57 



1957-58 



Figure 22: Monthly mean sediment load (tons), Scantic 
River at Broad Brook 1952- 1958 



70 



to predict any trend. Total annual sediment discharges for the 
period of record are given below: 



0.2 


7,471 


0. 2 


2,460 


0. 2 


15, 569 


0.4 


8, 656 


0.2 


2, 124 


0. 3 


3,826 



Sediment Load 
Tons per day Tons 

Water Year Max. Min. Total for period 

1953(Nov. 25, 1952 - Sept. 30, 1953) 708 

1954 189 

1955 6,670 

1956 1,376 

1957 185 

1958 185 

Usually the particle size of the suspended sediment in 
the Scantic River consisted of a very high percentage of silt and 
clay (as much as 96 percent) and lesser quantities of the sand 
sizes (table 19). This composition reflected the soil character- 
istics of the drainage basin- -principally sandy loam and clay. 
However, the composition changed drastically during floods 
such as the hurricane floods of autumn 1955. As stream 
velocities increased erosion of the bed took place. The heavier 
particles of sand that had accumulated on the bed were again 
suspended and transported downstream. As much as 81 percent 
of the suspended sediment consisted of sand and the remainder 
was silt and clay. 



WATER, QUALITY AND UTILITY 



The utility of water is dependent in part on its quality. 
Hard water is objectionable for domestic and industrial purposes 
because excessive amounts of soap are consumed, precipitates 
are formed and scale is deposited. If concentrations of iron and 
manganese exceed 0. 3 ppm, usually discoloration and deposition 
will take place. Acidity of water will promote corrosion in 
distribution systems. Excessive amounts of dissolved solids, 
alkalies, bicarbonate and chloride in water will render it unsuit- 
able for irrigation. The importance of the quality of water is 
indicated by the fact that quality of water standards have been 
established for many uses such as industrial, agricultural and 



71 






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72 



and domestic. 

Process water used in foods, beverage and other 
industries must meet certain chemical quality standards. It 
must be free from tastes and odors. Other requirements are 
that it should be soft, clear, free from iron, manganese and 
low in dissolved solids. These and other suggested water- 
quality tolerances for some of the major industries are shown 
in table 20. 

Water for irrigation is suitable if it contains moderate 
quantities of solutes and is relatively free of toxic substances. 
Small quantities of boron are necessary for plant growth but a 
concentration in excess of 1. ppm could be detrimental to 
sensitive plants. Concentration of dissolved solids is important 
although there is more latitude. For example, using specific 
conductance as a measure of dissolved solids, a water having a 
conductance of 2, 000 micromhos per cm or less (approximately 
equivalent to a concentration of 1200 ppm) will have negligible 
effect on crops. As the specific conductance increases crops 
are affected and yields restricted. Shown below are class 
limits of specific conductance and crop response. 

Specific conductance 
(micromhos per cm 



at 25' 


'C) 


Crop response 


- 


2000 


Effects negligible. 


2000 - 


4000 


Restricted yield of 
sensitive crops. 


4000 - 


8000 


Yields of many crops 
restricted. 


8000 - 


16000 


Only salt tolerant 
crops yield 
satisfactorily. 


16000 + 




Satisfactory yields 
from only a few 
very salt tolerant 
species. 



The quality-of-water standards for domestic purposes 
are quite stringent insofar as chemical quality is concerned. 
In 1946, the U. S. Public Health Service established standards 



73 



Table 20. --SUGGESTED WATER-QUALITY TOLERANCES a/ 
(Allowable limits in parts per million) 



Industry 
01 use 



Harndess Iron Manganese Total Alkalinity Odor 
Turbidity Color as CaCQ, as Fe as Mn solids as CaCO a Taste 



Hydrogen Other 

sulfide requirements b/ 



Air 

conditioning 
Baking 
Brewing: 
Light beer 

Dark beer 



Canning: 

Legumes 

General 
Carbonated 

beverages 

Confectionery 

Cooling 

Food: General 
Ice 

Laundering 
Plastics, clear, 

uncolored 
Paper and pulp: 

Groundwood 

Kraft pulp 
Soda and 

sulfite 
High-grade 

light papers 
Rayon( vis cose): 

Pulp production 



Manufacture 
Tanning 

Textiles: 
General 
Dyeing 



Wool scouring 
Cotton bandage 



10 
10 
10 



10 

10 

2 



50 

10 
5 



50 

25 

15 



10 



50 



20 

15 

10 
5 
5 



.3 -- 55 

20 10-100 50-135 



5 


20 


5 


5-20 




70 


5 


5 



c/0. 
c/ . 


5 
2 


0. 5 
. 2 




-- 


— 


low 
low 


1 

. 2 


c/ . 


1 


. 1 




500 


75 


low 


. 2 


c/ . 


1 


. 1 


1, 


000 


150 


low 


. 2 





25-75 


c/ 
c/ 


. 2 
. 2 


10 


250 




. 2 






c/ 


. 3 


-- 


-- 


c/ 


. 2 


-- 


50 


c/ 


. 5 


5 


-- 


c/ 

c/ 


. 2 
.2 



c/ . 02 



180 
100 


c/1, 

c/ . 



2 


100 


c/ . 


1 


50 


c/ . 


1 


8 


c/ . 


05 



. 
c/ .2 



.25 
c/ .25 



c/1. 

c/ .2 



2 

5 

2 
2 

2 

02 

5 

1 

05 
05 
03 



25 
25 



1. 
. 2 



850 



100 



200 

300 
200 
200 
100 



No corrosiveness, 
slime formation 
P. 

P. NaCl less than 275 
p. p. m. (pH 6. 5-7. 0). 
P. NaCl less than 275 
p. p. m. (pH 7. or 
more) 





-- 


low 


1 


P. 




-- 


low 


1 


P. 


50- 


• 100 


low 


. 2 


P. Organic color plus 
oxygen consumed less 
than 10 p. p. m. 






low 


. 2 


P. pH above 7. for 
hard candy 




— 


— 


5 


No corrosiveness, 
slime formation 






low 


-- 


P. 



low 



P. Si0 2 less than 
10 p. p. m. 



No grit, corrosiveness 



total 50; 
hydroxide 
8 



total 135; 
hydroxide 8 



Al. 



less than 8 



200 



i>3 
p. p. m. Si0_ less than 

25 p. p. m. Cu less 

than 5 p. p. m. 

pH 7. 8 to 8. 3 



Constant composition 
Residual alumina 
less than 0. 5 p. p. m. 



low 



a/ Moore, E. W. , Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of water for industrial uses: Jour. 

New England Water Works Assoc. , vol. 54, p. 271, 1940. 
b/ P indicates that potable water, conforming to U. S. P. H. S. standards, is necessary. 
c/ Limit given applies to both iron alone and the sum of iron and manganese. 



74 



for drinking water which apply to water supplies of interstate 
carriers. These standards are generally accepted for public 
water supplies. 



Mandatory limits 
(ppm) 



Lead 

Fluoride 

Arsenic 

Selenium 

Chromium (hexavalent) 



Non-mandatory limits 
(ppm) 



0. 


1 


Copper 




3. 





1. 


5 


Iron and Manganese 


. 


3 




05 


Magnesium 




125 






05 


Zinc 




15 






05 


Chloride 
Sulfate 




250 
250 








Phenolic cc 


mpounds 


• 


001 



Total solids 
Permitted 



500 
1000 



From the wide range of requirements, it is apparent 
that the chemical quality of most surface and ground waters in 
the state is satisfactory for multiple uses but is not necessarily 
satisfactory for all uses. In the western part of the state some 
surface and ground waters are moderately hard. In contrast, 
water sources in the central and eastern sections of the state 
generally have lower concentrations of dissolved solids and are 
soft. Iron might be a problem. Fortunately, with suitable 
treatment the chemical quality of raw water from most sources 
can be improved to meet the users requirements. In the use of 
water resources for public supplies, the sanitary quality is 
highly important. No attempt is made herein to evaluate the 
sanitary quality of water in the state. This is determined by 
the appropriate health agencies. 



75 



REFERENCES 

Ellis, A. J. , 1916, Ground Water in the Waterbury Area, 
Connecticut U. S. Geol. Water-Supply Paper 397. 

Gregory, H. E. , 1909, Underground Water Resources of 

Connecticut, with a study of the occurrence of water in 
crystalline rocks by E. E. Ellis: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 232. 

Lohr, E. W. and Love, S. K. , 1952, The Industrial Utility 
of Public Water Supplies in the United States, U. S. 
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1299, Part 1. 

Morgan, M. F. , 1939, The Soil Characteristics of Connecti- 
cut Land Types: Connecticut Agricultural Expt. Station 
Bull. 423. 

Rodgers, J. , Gates, R. M. , Cameron, E. N. Ross, R. J. 

Jr. , 1956, A Preliminary Geological Map of Connecticut, 
Connecticut Geol. & Nat. History Survey Bull. 84. 

U. S. Geological Survey, 1954, Compilation of Records of 
Surface Waters of the United States through September 
1950: Pt. 1-A, North Atlantic slope basins, Maine to 
Connecticut: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 
1301. 

U. S. Geolcgical Survey, Quality of surface waters of the 
United States Annual reports Pts. 1-4, North Atlantic 
slope basins to St. Lawrence River basin as follows: 
1954, Water-Supply Paper 1350; 1955, Water-Supply 
Paper 1400. 

U. S. Public Health Service, 1946, Public Health Service 
Drinking Water Standards, reprint 2697. 

U. S. Weather Bureau, issued monthly and annually, 
Climatological Data, New England. 



76 



APPENDIX 



77 



GLOSSARY 

z :- i m ^:er:al -5-:::r.e": deposited an me surface of a s:r earn 

bed. 

Carbonate hardx.es s. -Hardness of water due to calcium and 

magnesium equivalent to the bicarbonate and/or carbonate 
present. 

Clay. -Sediment particles smaller than 0. 004 millimeters. 

Composite sample. -A mixture of two or more water samples 
collected at different times (usually daily) at the same 
location. 
jubic foot per second (cfs) . -The rate of discharge of a stream 
whose channel is one s qua* e foot in cross- sectional area 
and whose average velocity is one foot per second. 

D:ssolved solids. -Residue from a clear sample of water after 
evapo ration and drving of residue for one hour at 180 C. 

Ecu:valem per million (epm). -Number expressing a weight 

ratio of parts per million of a substance to its equivalent 
weight. Equivalent weight is the atomic weight per unit 
valence. An equivalent weight of one substance will react 
or combine with an equivalent weight of another. 

Fluvial sediment or sediment. -Fragmental material transported 
by, suspended in, or deposited by water . 

Hardness. -The chemical and physical effect of calcium, magne- 
sium and other cations having soap consuming and incrust- 
ir.g properties. In this report it is expressed as the 
calcium carbonate (CaCO^) equivalent. 

Xcncarbcnate nardr.es s. -Hardness due to salts of calcium and 
magnesium other than those of bicarbonate and carbonate. 

Tar: ter million (pom . -A unit of weight of a constituent in a 



weignts oi water. 



Sar.d. -Sediment particles having diameters between 0.062 and 
2. 000 millimeters. 

Sediment. -Is fragmental material, suspended in or deposited 
by wa:er or air or accumulated in beds by other natural 
agents . 

Sediment concentration. -Ratio of weight of sediment in a water- 
s-id :m em mixture to the total weight of the mixture. In this 
report, sediment concentration is expressed in parts per 
million (ppm). 

Sed:m-rm lead. -"-Veight of sediment transported per unit of time. 

5:1:. -Sediment particles having diameters between 0. 004 and 
0. 062 millimeters. 



_ : 



GLOSSARY (continued ) 

Size analysis. -Definition of particle- size distribution in 

percent of total weight according to median size diameters 

in millimeters. 
Solute. -A dissolved substance. 
Specific conductance. -Conductance of an electric current per 

unit cross sectional area of solution and expressed in 

reciprocal ohms x 10 (micromhos at 25 C). 
Suspended sediment. -Sediment which is maintained in suspension 

in water for a considerable period of time without contact 

with the bed by the upward components of turbulent currents 

or by colloidal suspension. 
Water year. -A period that begins October 1 of one year and ends 

September 30 the following year. 



79 



*r* 



( 








University of 
Connecticut 

Librai 




3915302443 




Example: 

To find well EW49. EW is an 
abbreviation for EastWindsor town 

(see alphabetical listing below ). 
Locate town onmap-.well symbol o 
and number 49 give approximate 
location of well EW49. 



Abbreviation 


Name of town 


A 


Avon 


Bl 


Bloomfield 


Bs 


Bristol 


Cn 


Canaan 


Cr 


Cromwell 


EH 


East Hartford 


El 


Ellington 


EW 


East Windsor 


F 


Farmington 


Gl 


Glastonbury 


Gr 


Granby 


M 


Manchester 


Mf 


Middlefield 


Mt 


Middletown 


Na 


Naugatuck' 


P 


Portland 


Pv 


Plainvl lie 


S 


Southington 


Si 


Simsbury 


So 


Somers 


SW 


South Windsor 


sy 


Salisbury 


V 


Vernon 


w 


Windsor 


Wb 


Water bury 


WL 


Windsor Locks 



PLATE 2- Map showing approximate locations of 
sampled wells in the Housatonic and 
Connecticut River Basins. 



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